Examples of Short Papers: Definition, Types, and Characteristics
Examples of Short Papers – Every student or student must have received the task of making a term paper from the teacher or lecturers. However, a lecturer to a researcher must have also been given the task of writing a scientific paper in the form of a paper.
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a paper is defined in two senses, namely official writing on a subject that is intended to be read in public at a meeting and which is often prepared for publication; as well as student or student writing as a report on the results of carrying out school or college assignments.
In simple terms, a paper is a scientific paper whose discussion is focused on a particular problem, which has gone through a correct and actual process of research, observation and field research. The discussion of the contents of the problem in the paper relates to a particular subject, course, or area of specialization.
Compiling a paper is a tricky job because you have to pay attention to the rules of writing correctly. In addition, papers are usually used as assignments for self-development. Papers are scientific products written by someone. Writing a paper requires carefulness in looking at situations and conditions to be used as writing ideas.
Someone who will make a paper requires good writing skills based on the rules of paper writing. Therefore, this article will explain in detail about papers, starting from the definition, types of papers, structure, characteristics, and how to write good and correct papers.
The following is a complete explanation of the papers that have been compiled by the Gramedia editor.
Paper is a scientific writing that discusses a particular topic, which is included in the scope of knowledge. A paper has a systematics which is divided into four parts, namely introduction, literature study, discussion, and conclusion or closing.
Papers are one of the requirements for completing studies or education. A paper usually has characteristics, namely the results of a literature review or report on the implementation of an activity, demonstrating an understanding of the theoretical issues being studied in the paper, demonstrating an ability to relate to content originating from various sources used, and demonstrating various sources of information from papers into one unit. intact.
The definition of papers according to experts is certainly different from one another. However, they all have the same meaning. The following are some definitions of paper according to experts.
1. Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI)
According to KBBI, the definition of a paper is divided into two, namely official writing on a subject which is intended to be read in public at a hearing and which is often prepared for publication; as well as student or student writing as a report on the results of carrying out school or college assignments.
2. Panuti Sudjiman
According to Sudjiman, a paper is a prose essay that is not fiction and discusses a certain topic. Papers will generally be published in magazines and newspapers, but can also be in the form of anthology books.
3. Cape and Ardial
According to Tanjung and Ardial, a paper is a written work on a problem that is written systematically and through logical and objective analytical thinking.
4. WJS Poerwadarminta
According to Poerwadar Minta, a paper is a written description that discusses a particular problem, which then obtains further discussion and explanation.
Based on the understanding mentioned above, we can conclude that a paper is a scientific work in a formal form with a specific topic of discussion. The requirements for a written work to be called a paper are if it is made based on your own ideas, is not plagiarized, has never been published before, and contains contemporary elements, for example, contains topics that are currently being discussed by the public and are scientific in nature.
Types of Papers
The following are the types of papers based on the type of study, among others:
1. Deductive Paper
Deductive papers are papers that are based on theoretical studies which are relevant to the problem being discussed.
2. Inductive Paper
An inductive paper is a type of paper written based on objective empirical data based on what is obtained from the field but still relevant to the discussion.
3. Mixed Papers
Mixed papers are types of papers that are prepared or written based on theoretical studies as well as empirical data. That means, this mixed paper is a combination of deductive and inductive papers. In mixed papers, there are six categories based on the subject of the problem formulation discussed, namely:
a. Scientific Papers
Scientific papers are basically used for writing the results of scientific studies that contain problems and discussions. You should note that when viewed from the point of view of scientific principles and procedures, a scientific paper will resemble a simple research report. Where scientific papers are generally written as a scientific problem solving suggestion. Certainly, writers of scientific papers will also need a library study and this can be seen in the revisions listed.
b. Working Papers
Working papers will usually be read at a working paper seminar. Where it will be conveyed in the form of arguments in a research result. In the working paper that is read out there must be a problem that is carried out. The presenter of the working paper has included assumptions and hypotheses to answer the problem. Based on the contents of such papers, a discussion will arise.
c. Research Papers
Research paper is one of the terms used for scientific writing in the form of suggestions for solving a problem that is currently controversial without the intention of being read in a seminar.
d. Position Papers
Position paper is a paper prepared at the request of a party that serves as an alternative solution to a controversial problem. The procedures used for discussion and writing are carried out scientifically.
e. Analysis Paper
An analytical paper is a type of paper that is objectively empirical. The data sources obtained are based on experience gained from inventions, experiments, and also observations that have been made.
f. Response Paper
Response papers are papers that are often used as coursework for students that contain reactions to a reading.
Characteristics of a Good Paper
A good paper should have the following characteristics.
- Is the result of a literature review and a report on the implementation of a field activity that is in accordance with the scope of the main problems of a particular field of knowledge or discussion.
- Distribute an understanding of the theoretical problem being studied or one’s ability to apply a procedure, principle, or theory related to the case study being studied
- Highlighting the ability to understand the contents of the various sources used
- Being a tool to measure the ability of a lecturer, researcher, student and student to be able to mix and match some information into one complete written work. As well as practicing focusing on the use of grammar, paying attention to puebi rules correctly and precisely, quoting ethics in writing and concluding the essence of the discussion.
- The contents of the paper must be systematic and not messy with scientific writing rules that have been regulated by the relevant educational institution.
Example of a Short Paper with a Good Structure
IF INDONESIA WITHOUT PANCASILA
Lecturer: Dr. Made Pramono, M.Hum
Subject: Pancasila Education
FACULTY OF SPORTS SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND RECREATION EDUCATION
By mentioning the name of Allah SWT who is Most Compassionate and Most Merciful, we praise and thank Him for His presence, who has showered His grace, guidance, and mercy on us, so that I can complete the scientific paper on “If Indonesia Without Pancasila” .
I have prepared this scientific paper to the maximum and get help from various parties, so that it can facilitate the preparation of this paper. For that I express many thanks to all parties who have contributed in the preparation of this paper.
Apart from all that, I am fully aware that there are still shortcomings both in terms of sentence structure and grammar. Therefore, we accept all suggestions and criticisms from readers with open arms so that we can improve this scientific paper.
Finally, I hope that this scientific paper on “If only Indonesia Without Pancasila” could provide benefits and inspiration to readers.
Surabaya, 16 February 2018
Abdullah Faliqul Isbach
LIST OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD …………………………………………………. ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………………… iii
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………. 4
A. Background ………………………………………………………. 4
B. Formulation of the Problem …………………………………………………. 4
C. Purpose ………………………………………………………………………….. 4
CHAPTER II. DISCUSSION ……………………………………………… 5
A. The Benefits of Pancasila for Indonesia …………………………. 5
B. If Indonesia Without Pancasila ……………………. 6
CHAPTER III. CLOSING ………………………………………………………… 9
A. Conclusion ………………………………………………………….. 9
B. Suggestions ………………………………………………………………………… 9
BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………….. 10
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
Pancasila is the basic ideology of the Indonesian nation, the nation’s way of life. Pancasila consists of five precepts which are essentially a philosophical system. The system itself is a unit or parts that are interconnected, working together for a specific purpose and as a whole is a unified whole.
The loyalty, nationalism and patriotism of citizens to their nation and country can be measured in the form of their loyalty to the philosophy of their country which is formally embodied in the form of statutory regulations (the 1945 Constitution and other statutory regulations). The loyalty of these citizens can be seen in the attitudes and actions of living, practicing and securing these laws and regulations.
B. Problem Formulation
1. What are the benefits of Pancasila for Indonesia?
2. What if Indonesia is without Pancasila?
1. Understand the importance of Pancasila for the Indonesian nation.
2. Understand the impact if Indonesia is without Pancasila.
CHAPTER II. DISCUSSION
A. The benefits of Pancasila for Indonesia
Apart from being a symbol of our country (Indonesia), Pancasila is the basic ideology for the Indonesian state. Pancasila is the formulation and guidelines for the life of the nation and state for all Indonesian people. Pancasila has extraordinary benefits and impacts for the Indonesian people.
1. Pancasila Becomes the Nation’s Viewpoint
Pancasila as a nation’s perspective functions so that the Indonesian people must be guided by Pancasila in everyday life. All forms of Indonesian culture and moral ideals must originate from Pancasila. This is done for the sake of achieving physical and spiritual well-being.
2. Pancasila Becomes the Soul of the Nation
Pancasila as the soul of the nation functions to keep Indonesia alive in the spirit of Pancasila. Every nation and state certainly has a soul. Pancasila in this case becomes the soul of the Indonesian nation. Pancasila itself has existed since the Indonesian nation was born, namely since the Proclamation of Independence.
3. Pancasila Becomes the Personality of the Nation
Pancasila as the person of the Indonesian nation has a function, namely as something that gives a distinctive style to the Indonesian nation and becomes a differentiator that distinguishes our nation from other nations.
4. Pancasila Becomes a Sublime Covenant
Pancasila as a noble agreement has been functioning and agreed through the meeting of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) on August 18, 1945. PPKI is actually just a body that represents the voice of the people. So, Pancasila is the result of an agreement with the people.
5. Pancasila Becomes a Source of Law
Pancasila as a source of law functions to regulate all applicable laws in Indonesia. All laws must be subject to and sourced from Pancasila. Every law must not conflict with Pancasila. Every precept in Pancasila is its basic value, while the laws are instrumental values (the translation of the basic values).
6. Pancasila Becomes the Ideals of the Nation
Pancasila as the ideals of the nation has a function, namely to create a just and prosperous society.
7. Pancasila Becomes the Nation’s Philosophy of Life
Pancasila as the nation’s philosophy of life serves to unite the Indonesian people. Pancasila is considered to have the most correct, just and wise values that are expected to unite the nation.
8. Pancasila Becomes the Foundation of the State
Pancasila as the basis of the state has a function as a regulator of all things in Indonesian life such as the people, territory and government. In addition, Pancasila is also the administration of the state and state life.
9. Pancasila Becomes the Nation’s Ideology
Pancasila as an ideology has a function, which is to become the way of thinking of the Indonesian nation. Pancasila becomes material for reflection in everyday life.
B. If Indonesia Without Pancasila
We know that Pancasila is used as the basis of the state and cannot be contested. Pancasila is a joint formulation democratically and has been approved by many people at the time of its ratification, so it has a very strong position.
However, what if Indonesia without Pancasila? Everyone must have thought that Indonesia would be destroyed, chaotic, and so on, but not a few people also said that Indonesia could still exist without Pancasila, including myself, one of them.
We can see examples of the many countries out there that are still standing strong and advanced, even more than Indonesia without Pancasila, only Malaysia has Pancasila like Indonesia. Based on some of my analysis of Pancasila, Pancasila is only a social contract for Indonesian society. First of all, I would like to respond to the erroneous views expressed by many parties who state that Pancasila is an ideology. This is an erroneous opinion.
As revealed in the minutes of the Investigation Agency for Preparatory Efforts for Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI), the formulation of Pancasila is in the documents prepared in the process of forming a new state, namely the Republic of Indonesia (RI).
Thus, clearly, it is a political document, not philosophy or ideology. A political document in the process of forming a new state is usually a social contract, meaning an agreement or compromise between fellow citizens regarding the principles of the new state.
Based on the minutes of the preparatory body, it can also be seen that the course of the negotiations (deliberations) led to reaching a compromise. The principles of the agreement to establish a new state were then called Pancasila. It can be equated with the important documents of other countries, such as the Magna Carta in England, the Bill of Rights in the United States, Droit de l’homme in France, and so on.
If the principles contained in the social contract are violated, in essence the dissolution of the state occurs. Likewise, in fact, changes to Pancasila require the dissolution of the state first. The question is, if now ideas appear to make changes to Pancasila – a form of the right to express opinions guaranteed by Pancasila itself – doesn’t that mean it is a step towards dissolving the state?
The next question is, does the government have the right to enforce principles of political life other than Pancasila, such as the implementation of sharia in Aceh, or DI Yogyakarta proclaiming itself as a kingdom, or do other regions in Indonesia want to become Catholic regions and others?
What then happened to the regions that said they were outside of Pancasila or RI? The answer to this question is not within the authority of the author to answer, but is the authority of the Supreme Court (MA) or other constitutional bodies in Indonesia.
Based on the historical process, the embryo of the idea of making Pancasila an ideology emerged in the 1950s. At that time, there was a conflict between the central government and Darul Islam/Indonesian Islamic Army (DI/TII). However, the process of interpreting Pancasila into a new ideology developed during the New Order era. During this period, Pancasila was transformed into the state ideology and became a slogan through the P-4 indoctrination process, followed by the commemoration of Pancasila Sanctity Day (beginning of the New Order = October 1).
By making Pancasila as an ideology, Pancasila automatically gains competition from other ideas in a pluralistic society like Indonesia, which of course has its own various ideologies. This is the trap that plunged the New Order regime into a trap, which turned the social contract into a state ideology. This makes Pancasila must compete with other ideologies in society. It would be a different matter if the regime were aware of history and continued to make Pancasila a social contract.
As a social contract, Pancasila deserves to stand above various ideologies because it is a contract for the formation of the state. If you really want to change, it means that the country must be dissolved first. Thus, if the social contract is still agreed upon, during that time the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI) can stand upright.
History has proven that the principles of this social contract in most parts of Indonesia succeeded in uniting and consolidating the country against many underminings such as separatist movements and others. Based on the history of the formulation above, Pancasila provides extraordinary impetus with the values and meanings in it.
CHAPTER III. CLOSING
Pancasila is an ideology that is compatible with Indonesia because it is able to accommodate Indonesia’s high heterogeneity with its diversity of religions, customs, cultures, and so on. Pancasila has an important meaning for Indonesia as a national identity, which then becomes the hallmark of the Indonesian nation which is different from other nations. However, that does not mean looking down on other nations, Indonesian citizens must continue to uphold world brotherhood. Pancasila in its development has also experienced various dynamics of interpretation from time to time.
If it is true that Pancasila is still in every one of us, God willing, the unity and oneness of this country will still exist. Apart from that, if it is true that Pancasila is still firmly attached to our souls and bodies, God willing, we will always want to be tolerant in a peaceful and beautiful life. If Pancasila does not exist within the Indonesian nation, this country will stray from the path of truth.
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