Definition of Transitive and Intransitive Sentences and Examples of Their Use!


Definition of Transitive and Intransitive Sentences and Examples of Their Use!

Transitive and Intransitive Sentences
Written by Fandy

Transitive and Intransitive Sentences – Humans as social beings need tools to interact with others. Therefore, language is a tool used as a means of interaction in the establishment of a communication. When we communicate with other people using spoken or written language, the goal is to convey ideas, thoughts, desires or desires to other people.

An idea, thought, or desire in spoken language is conveyed directly by speaking and with the help of breathing air. According to Cahyono (1995: 6) in his book entitled Crystals of Linguistics , spoken language begins with imitating body movements and verbal cues, which are related to the mouth and tongue, thus encouraging a person to speak.

The written language is written using a writing system. Language is an important part of social and social life, whenever and wherever a person is. Language becomes something very important because without language humans cannot interact and understand each other’s culture.

In addition, a relationship will also not be created between humans if there is no language. Language can also be interpreted as a system of arbitrary sound symbols used by members of a society to work together, interact, and identify themselves.

One form of speech used by a society to express ideas, thoughts, and feelings in everyday life is a sentence. Sentences in linguistics can be interpreted as units of language that are relatively independent, have final intonation patterns, and actually or potentially consist of clauses.

Sugiono (2009: 42) in his book entitled Proficient in Indonesian Language Correctly writes that a sentence is said to be active if the subject becomes the doer of the action, while the predicate is an active verb. These active verbs or verbs are marked with field affixes with or without affixes, for example write, take, see, run, work, eat, jump , and so on. Generally, active sentence patterns are often found in various types of text because they tend to be easier to digest and understand by readers or listeners.

Sentences have many types, including transitive and intransitive sentences. These two types of sentences have contradictory characteristics. Keraf explained that transitive and intransitive sentences are two different types of sentences. These two sentences are distinguished based on the need for objects in a sentence structure.

Furthermore, quoted from the book Think Smart Indonesian by Ismail Kusmayadi, transitive sentences are sentences with transitive verbs that require objects or complements, while intransitive sentences do not require objects in them. Transitive sentences require objects or complements in order to convey their full meaning, while intransitive sentences do not need objects, but can convey their meaning without causing confusion.

Examples of transitive and intransitive sentences need to be known to understand the difference between the two types of sentences. This article will discuss in detail about transitive and intransitive sentences, starting from their meaning, characteristics, to their differences. See also examples of transitive and intransitive sentences below.

Transitive and Intransitive Sentences

Definition of Transitive Sentences

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a transitive sentence is a sentence that is related to a verb and requires an object. That is, the sentence must be followed by the object after the predicate. Transitive active sentences are sentences that have a subject (S), predicate (P), object (O), and adverb (K). This pattern can be changed into a passive sentence because it is equipped with an object.

A transitive sentence can be dissected into the following elements.

  • Subject (S): the part of the sentence that shows the actor.
  • Predicate (P): part of the sentence that shows what is done or the state of the subject.
  • Object (O): the part of the sentence that completes the predicate.
  • Description (K): additional function.

Transitive sentences also consist of three types, namely:

  • Ekatransitive sentences, namely types of sentences that have only one object.
  • Dwitransitive sentence, which is a type of sentence that only has two objects.
  • Semitransitive sentences, which are types of sentences that are equipped with complements.

Definition of Intransitive Sentences

According to KBBI , intransitive active sentences are sentences without a direct object or complement. The sentence already has a clear meaning without an object. This sentence uses adverbs or complementary words in it, even though the object is omitted.

The structure of intransitive active sentences is in the form of SP (subject-predicate), or SPK (subject-predicate-adverb), or it can also be patterned as SP-Pel (subject-predicate-complement). This intransitive active sentence pattern cannot be changed into a passive sentence because it is not equipped with an object, for example the words crying, dancing, stepping, and being silent .

Difference Between Transitive and Intransitive Sentences

Based on the understanding above, you can see that there is a striking difference between transitive sentences and intransitive sentences. The main difference between these two sentences lies in the presence of an object in the sentence. Transitive sentences have objects or complements, while intransitive sentences do not have objects or complements.

The following are detailed differences in transitive and intransitive sentences quoted from a book entitled Indonesian Writing Skills Series: Sentences written by Djoko Saryono and Soedjito.

1. Based on the Verb Type

A transitive sentence is a sentence that is predicated as a transitive verb, that is, it has a verb that has an object. In contrast to transitive, intransitive sentences are sentences that consist of intransitive verbs, namely verbs that do not have an object.

2. Based on its characteristics

When viewed from the main characteristics of transitive and intransitive sentences, transitive sentences are characterized by the presence of an object in the sentence, while intransitive sentences do not require an object to express an idea and feeling.

3. By Prefix

If transitive and intransitive sentences have an active sentence structure, there is a difference in the use of prefixes or their affixes. Transitive active sentences use media affixes in the predicate, while intransitive active sentences require objects to use affixes in the sentence.

4. Based on the structure

One of the differences between transitive and intransitive sentences is the sentence structure. There is a striking difference between the structure of transitive sentences and intransitive sentences. Transitive sentences are sentences that have structures in the form of SPO, SPO-Pel, SPOK, while intransitive sentences have structures of SPK, SP-Pel.

5. Based on the Sentence

Transitive active sentences can be changed into passive sentences, while intransitive active sentences cannot be changed into passive sentences because they are not equipped with objects. The position of the object is replaced by an adverb or a complement.

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Transitive and Intransitive Sentences

Characteristics of Transitive and Intransitive Active Sentences

Active voice is a type of sentence in which the subject is given information that he is doing a job or activity. This sentence has a general characteristic, namely that the predicate is in the form of a verb that has an affix with a field-, such as studying and playing , or it can be a verb that does not have an affix, for example going, sleeping, bathing , and so on.

When viewed from the need of a sentence for an object, active sentences have two types, namely transitive active sentences and intransitive active sentences. Transitive active sentences are active sentences that are equipped with objects or information, so this sentence has the structure SPO or SPOK. In addition, another feature of this sentence is that the transitive active sentence can be changed into the passive form, because the sentence is equipped with an object in the sentence structure.

In contrast to transitive active sentences, intransitive active sentences are sentences that are not equipped with sentence patterns. The characteristic of this sentence is that it has the structure SP or SPK. Intransitive active sentences also have certain characteristics, namely they cannot be changed into passive sentences, because these sentences do not have an object in the sentence structure.

Examples of Transitive and Intransitive Sentences

Transitive and intransitive sentences have different sentence structures. Transitive sentence structures are in the form of SPO, SPOK, SPO-Pel, while intransitive sentences are in the form of SPK, SP-Pel. As quoted from a book entitled Indonesian Class XI by Yustinah, an example of a transitive sentence is “Budi washes his dirty shoes”. Based on this sentence, the position of the object is needed to support the predicate in explaining Budi’s activities. An example of an intransitive sentence is “Rani entered the house”. This sentence does not require an object, because its meaning has been conveyed in its entirety.

In addition to the two examples above, there are other examples. The following are examples of transitive and intransitive sentences that are commonly used in everyday life.

Transitive Sentence Examples

  1. My sister accidentally deleted the data on my laptop.
  2. My sister reads a novel entitled Like Revenge, Longing Must Be Repaid Completely .
  3. Andi did his job well.
  4. Andri is washing clothes.
  5. Father and sister watching the latest movie at the cinema.
  6. Dad washes clothes in the bathroom.
  7. The new clothes were worn by Ina.
  8. My father repaired a broken cupboard.
  9. Bela closed the door.
  10. Cristiano Ronaldo kicks the ball into the opponent’s goal.
  11. Deni bumped into a cat that was crossing.
  12. He climbed a tree.
  13. He had considered many things.
  14. He likes to question the past problems
  15. Diana watched television.
  16. Donny wrote a letter.
  17. Ferdi listens to metal music.
  18. Mother told me not to come home late at night.
  19. Indra married Rani.
  20. Brother helps mother cook rice.
  21. My sister waters the flowers in the front yard of the house.
  22. Grandpa draws water in the well.
  23. We do PR.
  24. You cut paper.
  25. We need to do something.
  26. The cat is chasing the mouse.
  27. Lilis poured coffee in father’s glass.
  28. Lisa picked up the phone from her friend at night.
  29. Villagers catch cow thieves.
  30. They throw stones.
  31. Grandmother planted a banana tree in the garden.
  32. The RT always protects his citizens well.
  33. Uncle Haris was hoeing the soil in the fields.
  34. Uncle cuts my sister’s hair.
  35. The students are studying material about transitive and intransitive sentences.
  36. Sita opened the door of the house.
  37. Rahmat rides a motorcycle every time he goes to school.
  38. Rani writes a letter to her sister.
  39. Rida is arranging flowers for her sister’s graduation.
  40. Rino listens to keroncong music tonight.
  41. kick the ball.
  42. My cousin fixed a broken bike.
  43. Sintia finds money in her shirt pocket.
  44. Sita looks for her lost sandals.
  45. Siti makes her bed every morning.
  46. Tony rides a motorcycle fast.
  47. Vina  misses  her parents who are in the village.
  48. The company treats employees unfairly.
  49. The police have caught a car thief.
  50. received a gift from dad.
  51. All students must submit assignments today.
  52. A technician has repaired this printer.
  53. The student can answer 10 math questions.
  54. Winona nodded her head quickly.
  55. The woman wears a red scarf.

Examples of Intransitive Sentences

  1. Akmal is playing ball.
  2. consulted Ilham.
  3. I was punished to stand in the middle of the field.
  4. talk to my neighbors.
  5. Alya asked during the lesson.
  6. Andi ran fast.
  7. My father joked with me and my mother while sitting together.
  8. The cock has crowed.
  9. Many tourists in Bali sunbathe on the beach.
  10. Budi is playing a kite.
  11. Danny fell because he ran very fast.
  12. Dila lied to mother.
  13. Fatin sleeps and dreams.
  14. My sister comes home from work in the afternoon.
  15. Kamalia left this morning.
  16. The headmaster gave a speech in the school field.
  17. Kinar stood in front of the class.
  18. Mario shouted for his friend across the street.
  19. They walk together.
  20. Maudy Ayunda is good at singing.
  21. My study group discussed discussing the final semester exam grid.
  22. The students lined up neatly.
  23. Rita studies diligently every day.
  24. Rudi trained hard ahead of the game.
  25. sing melodiously.
  26. After praying my sister and I prayed.
  27. Every August 17th, children compete in art performances.
  28. Sita runs fast.
  29. I’ve been  standing here for an hour.
  30. Everyone  is happy to welcome the new year.
  31. His body was covered in blood.
  32. His body was covered in sweat.
  33. Martha lined up at the counter.
  34. Tio walked to the stall.
  35. The guy talks about bike theft.
  36. We should diligently  sunbathe in the morning.
  37. My family is on vacation to the beach.
  38. Budi is taking a bath.
  39. The sparrow flew around the trees.
  40. He fell into a deep sleep.
  41. Ferrel smiled as he passed in front of me.
  42. Hadi is painting on the lawn.
  43. Ida was not accepted by the steel company.
  44. Kartika sat at the back.
  45. Good is repaid with evil.
  46. They sleep in tents.
  47. Rendra Juliandra was silent when he heard the sad news.
  48. Ria is accepted at the university of choice and is well-known.
  49. Rina is famous as a country girl.
  50. Rudi is predicted to be a famous person.
  51. Runi smiled and was amazed by the handsome man.
  52. Santoso goes to school.
  53. Every time it rains, Dwina always daydreams in front of her bedroom window.
  54. Tani slipped in the bathroom.
  55. Wita draws with a pencil.

Transitive and Intransitive Sentences


  • Alwi, Hasan, et al. (2003). Indonesian Standard Grammar . Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
  • Arifin, Zaenal and Junaiyah. (2007). Morphology of Form, Meaning, and Function. Jakarta: PT Grasindo.
  • Badudu, Jusuf Sjarif. (1992). Indonesian Horizon II . Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  • Ministry of Education. (2008). Big Indonesian Dictionary . Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  • Effendi, et al. (2015). Indonesian Basic Grammar. Bandung: Rosdakarya Youth.
  • Keraf, Gorys. (1997). Composition: An Introduction to Language Proficiency. Ende, Flores: Nusa Indah Publisher.
  • Kunjana, Rahadi. (2005). Pragmatics: Indonesian Imperative Politeness . Yogyakarta: Erlangga.
  • Setyaningrum, Rooselina Ayu. (2022). Indonesian Context Creative Writing . Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University Press.
  • Tarigan, Henri Guntur. (1990). Pragmatic Teaching. Bandung: Space.
  • Tarigan, Henry Guntur and Djago Tarigan. (2009). Study Indonesian Textbooks. London: Space.

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