Passive Sentence Examples: Definition, Types, and Proper Use
Examples of Passive Sentences – In every sentence we read, be it in newspapers, novels, or other books, we will definitely find several examples of the use of active and passive sentences. Of course, the two differences in these sentences have quite an effect on the meaning of a piece of writing where we will be invited to interpret each sentence itself.
Sentence is a linguistic unit in the form of a word or a series of words that can express a complete meaning and can stand alone. Furthermore, sentences can also be understood as the smallest linguistic unit that expresses the contents of thoughts expressed in writing or orally. When expressed verbally, sentences can be loud or low, voices rise or fall, and so on.
Whereas if stated in writing, sentences are pronounced in Latin letters, using capital letters and using a dot at the end. Based on the relationship between subject, predicate and meaning value, sentences are classified into two types: active sentences and passive sentences.
The role of the sentence in writing is very important in terms of its function as a founder of a more detailed language structure. The existence of both active and passive sentences is universally used in all languages in the world, including Indonesian itself.
So, from the two types of sentences, both active and passive, in this discussion we will focus more on passive sentences, what is the definition? Types and examples of their proper use in writing. Here is the discussion.
Passive Sentence Definition
Before we get into discussing the meaning of passive sentences, we will first discuss the meaning of sentences. According to the book Formation of Words in Indonesian (Kridalaksana: 1991), sentences are relatively independent ideas that have final intonation and consist of several clauses.
Passive sentences are sentences where the subject receives treatment, action, or gives several verbs in the activity or action. In other words, the passive voice shows that the subject is part of the purpose of an action that is done or has been done. In the passive sentence structure, the subject becomes part of an action or activity. The subject in the passive voice is not in the position of the subject, but the role of the subject is taken by the object.
Passive sentences are types of sentences that arise from the process of passive active sentences. On the other hand, passive voice is a type of sentence based on the subject of the sentence. In the passive voice, the subject is the subject of an action. In general, the predicate used in passive sentences usually begins with the prefix ter- and di-.
According to Chaer in the same source, forming sentences from active sentences can be done in several ways, including:
- Change the object of the active sentence to the subject of the sentence.
- Change the subject of the active sentence to the object of the passive sentence.
- Change the form of verbs that start with to- to verbs that start with in-.
Even though they are called active passive sentences, there are passive sentences that do not appear because of passive sentences.
Passive sentences are sentences with the subject of treatment or action. This sentence form has a predicate in the form of a verb that begins with at- and at prepositions. In addition, passive sentences are added with the ending -i and -di -…- right. It is important to note that the passive predicate is modified compared to the passive predicate.
Passive sentences are different from active sentences. The subject of the active voice is going to do something, and the first word begins with the addition of ber- or me-. An example of an active sentence is Rani cleaning the yard.
Characteristics of Passive Sentences
The subject does not always act as the author, but becomes the target of the action. Sentences with a subject like this are passive sentences. There is a change that occurs when the object of the active sentence is changed to the subject of the passive sentence.
Passive sentences usually start with di- or ter. In Indonesian, there are passive sentences with a verb attached with the prefix ke-an. The prefix di- usually at the beginning of a sentence functions as a result of adding and opposing active verbs.
Here are some characteristics of a passive sentence that we can find:
- The affix words ter-, di-, ter-an, ter-ke-an after the predicate
The affixes in each passive sentence state that the subject in the sentence acts as a party to the work or acts as a victim. If the affix above is in the predicate in the sentence, then the sentence is included in the passive voice.
- The subject does not act directly
If in the active sentence, the subject is the one who immediately acts, otherwise in the passive sentence. In this sentence, the subject changes to the party doing the action. The position of the subject in the passive sentence is the object in the active sentence and vice versa.
- There are possessive pronouns
First, second, or third person pronouns are called personal pronouns. In sentence structure, personal pronouns can act as subjects or complements and as predicates for objects. If the personal pronoun joins the predicate and the object, we can see that the sentence is placed in the passive voice. Also, object parts are usually marked with the words “by” and “with”, but that doesn’t help much. Because the presence or absence of the particle does not change the meaning of the passive voice.
The role of subject and object in Passive Sentences
In the journal Functions of subject in Indonesia Passive Sentences it is simply explained that in passive sentences, the subject acts as the object of the sentence. Whereas in active sentences, the subject acts as the perpetrator of the sentence itself.
Meanwhile, the role of the object in the active sentence is a subject of the sentence. If it is changed into a passive sentence, then the presence of the object becomes the subject of the sentence. This is why the subject in the passive voice acts like the doer is performing an action.
To better understand the role of subject and object in passive sentences, consider the following example sentences:
First sentence: “Student interns sign an agreement letter”
Furthermore, the active sentences in the sentences above are changed to passive sentences, becoming:
Second sentence: “Letter of approval signed by the intern student”
The first sentence has one part “Student intern”, one part “signed” and one part “letter of acceptance”. The “student apprentice” constituency acts as the subject, while the “approval letter” constituency acts as the object or target.
From the structure of the first sentence, it can be seen that the role of the subject functions as the perpetrator of the sentence. While the role of the target sentence functions as the object of the sentence.
Then the first sentence is passive in the second sentence. In the second sentence, the element of the original “statement letter” acts as the target and the subject in the first sentence switches the role of actor and subject in the second sentence.
Same with “student interns” who act as actors and subjects in the first sentence. He reversed the roles of the target sentence and the subject in the second sentence.
The composition of passive sentences is different from active sentences. In the opinion of experts such as Kridalaksana (1993) explains that there are two types of passive sentences, namely the subject is a sentence with an object or subject carrying out activities. There are also passive sentences without a subject because they are not the main subject.
Meanwhile, according to Sugono (2009), passive sentences consist of the ending di-, the passive sentence is attached with a word plus an actor, and the passive sentence has the ending ter-.
Passive sentences based on the predicate and object can be classified into four. The four types of sentences are as follows.
1. Transitive passive voice
Transitive passive sentences are sentences that consist of a series of subject-verb-object followed by an adverb or modifier. If it’s not followed by an adverb or adverb, it doesn’t really matter as it can be strung together to make a complete sentence.
This type of sentence is a sentence whose predicate has an object. The basic pattern of this sentence is OPS or OPSK.
Example of sentences:
- The suckling pig was burned by the tribal chief last night.
- The corpse flower smells great from a distance.
2. Intransitive Passive Sentences
This sentence is a passive voice without an object. The existence of the object is replaced by an adverb or a complement. Thus, the sentence pattern formed becomes subject-predicate-adverb or subject-predicate-complement.
This type of sentence is a sentence whose predicate does not have an object. The basic pattern of this sentence is SP or SPK.
Example of sentences:
- Drugs are sold on the black market.
- Jokowi was shocked.
3. Passive Action Sentences
Passive action sentences are sentences whose predicate position acts as a certain type of activity or action. Suffixes can be added to predicates such as di or di-kan depending on the context of the sentence being assembled.
This type of sentence is a passive sentence whose predicate is an action or deed. The predicate is usually in the form of verbs with the affixes di-, tar, ke-, or pronouns.
Example of sentences:
- The ugly person was beaten by his college friend.
- The smelly person was sprayed with perfume by his neighbor.
4. Conditional Passive Sentences
While the conditional passive sentence is a conditional sentence whose predicate plays a role in the state of affairs. Affixes for predicates that are arranged in a series of sentences can be ke-an.
This type of sentence is a passive sentence that describes the condition of the subject. The predicate in this passive sentence is usually a base word with an affix.
Example of sentences:
- Goro’s body is crushed by a spirit.
- Masfeb was frightened when he saw the riots.
Fundamental Differences in Passive and Active Sentences
Active and passive sentences in the language basically do not have many striking differences in their use. However, it is this use with other accompanying phrases that distinguishes these two phrases in Indonesian, English and others. For example, the use of active and passive sentences in English must follow a rather complicated form of English grammar structure.
Both forms must follow rules like present simple, past simple, past continuous, past continuous, etc. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, the rules for using both are not as complicated as in English.
In general, active and passive sentences have 3 fundamental differences in sentence structure. The three differences are:
- The subject in the active sentence is the actor who performs an action, while the subject in the passive sentence is the party subject to an action.
- The predicate in active sentences usually has the affixes ber- or me, while in passive sentences they are ter-, di-, ter-an, ter- impressed.
- Active sentences usually do not use by or with phrases, unlike passive sentences which usually require by or with phrases.
Passive Sentence Examples
In addition to the example sentences described above, here are some examples of other passive sentences to add to your understanding:
1. Transitive Passive Sentences
- The ugly person has been dressed by his mother
The ugly person is the subject, dressed up is the predicate, and said by his mother is the object.
- Mother’s cooking is eaten by hungry friends
Mother’s cooking shows the subject, eaten is a predicate word, friend refers to the object, and the word hunger is a complementary word.
- Crazy people are transported by social workers.
Crazy person is the subject, transported is the predicate, and said by social workers is the object.
- The house is sold by the developer.
The house is the subject, has been sold is the predicate, and the word by the developer is the object.
2. Intransitive Passive Sentences
- That person is exposed to calamities every day
The person’s word is the subject, affected is the predicate, and the word everyday shows the complement word.
- Circus animals locked in iron cages
The circus animal is the subject, confined is the predicate, while in the iron cage is an adverb that shows a place.
- Jokowi fell on the hill
The word Jokowi is a subject, falling is a predicate, and the word hill indicates a word is an adverb indicating a place.
- Jokowi was surprised by Putin’s arrival from Russia
The word Jokowi is the subject, the word surprised is the predicate, the word Putin’s arrival is a complementary word and the word Russia shows is an adverb that shows a place.
3. Passive Action Sentences
- The jury judged that his work was trash
The word of his work shows the subject, judged is a predicate with the affix di- which is a form of action, and by the jury is an object.
- The house is being sold by the family
The house refers to the subject, for sale is a predicate with the affix di- which indicates a form of action, while the family is the object.
- The Supra motorbike was damaged by thugs.
The motor word supra shows the subject, damaged is a predicate with the affix di- which is a form of action, and by thugs is an object.
- Prizes corrupted by the chairman of the government.
The word gift shows the subject, being corrupted is a predicate with the affix di- which is a form of action, and by the government is an object.
4. Passive Sentences of Circumstances
- The ugly man had an accident due to speeding
The ugly person refers to the subject, accident is a predicate that shows a situation with the affix ke-an, and because speeding is a complementary word.
- The house caught fire last night
The house is the subject, fire is a predicate that shows the condition with the affix of ke-an, while last night showed a complementary word.
- Goro overheated while staying in East Jakarta.
Goro refers to the subject, hotness is a predicate indicating a state with the affix affix, and while staying is a complementary word. The word in East Jakarta shows the description of the place.
- Cat descended from the tiger family
Cat refers to the subject, descent is a predicate that shows a situation with the affix ke-an, and tiger family is a complementary word.
That’s a brief discussion about the meaning of passive sentences. The discussion this time does not only discuss the definition of passive sentences but also discusses the proper use of passive sentences, the characteristics and types of passive sentences, and examples of passive sentences in paragraphs.
Passive sentences really help us understand the correct structure of language in language learning which helps us more easily understand and properly understand the function and proper use of passive sentences.
Thus a review of the meaning of passive sentences. For Grameds who want to learn all about the meaning of passive sentences and knowledge related to literature and other languages, you can visit Gramedia.com to get related books.
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Author: Pandu Akram
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